DNA research confirms significant Aryan ancestry of Europeans
I thought it could be interesting to look at some recent DNA research on the ancestry of Europe.
Although the story doesn't begin here, around the end of the last Ice age, we find dispersed populations of hunter-gatherers all over Europe (Western European Hunter-Gatherer in the table below). Meanwhile the Neolithic revolution, the cultivation of cereals, had began in the Middle East, and as the climate changed in Europe, these early farmers (Early Neolithic LBK_EN) poured into Europe. Interestingly, these people were most closely related to modern-day Sardinians.
Evidence suggests that these two populations lived side-by-side for a long time. The story isn't complete here however, because in the Pontiac steppe lived another people who lived primarily from taming animals, including the horse, which they rode and later had to draw wheeled chariots. They spoke a language which would come to spread all over the world, in the form of all the Indo-European branches. These are the people that we are referring to when we speak of the original Aryans, in modern science called the Yamnaya.
The identification of the Yamnaya people with the Proto-Indo-Europeans, is only one of two proposed hypotheses - the other suggesting an invasion or migration from modern day Turkey - but the latest evidence points so clearly to the former, that I think we now can say with certainty that this is our best assumption.
Sometime 6000-5000 years ago, the Yamnaya spread into Europe, giving rise to what is called the Corded Ware culture. According to a 2015 paper, Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe, by Haak, et al, the Yamnaya contributed not only culture, language and technology to mainland Europe, but about three quarters of their genome could be traced back to the invaders. These three groups were what defined and created the European people as we know it today. Other genetic events have of course taken place since, such as the Mongol and Muslim invasions, but none have had quite the impact that these three groups have had.
That is at least the general picture as far as we understand it today. Details are likely to change as more archeological finds are discovered and the methodology is advanced,
There are of course still many unanswered questions, an obvious one being: where did these three populations originate from, and how closely related were they to each other? I won't go into the details here, but after sequencing the genome of a man in Kostenki in Russia, dating back to about 37 000 years ago, the results suggests that he is a common ancestor to all these three European populations.
Looking at the results from Haak's study, he also compared the known genomes of these three groups to living populations in Europe through an admixture model, as seen in the figure below. Now, these are mathematical models which tries to make a best fit approximation of the admixture. If the inputted data is wrong, or if it is the completely wrong ancient populations used, you would still get some kind of result, so they do not prove anything by themselves. This is not a criticism of the article though, but an advice to keep in mind that all these results are heavily dependent on the assumptions going into the models.
I probably don't have to point out that interestingly enough, the modern populations of Europe which we generally think of as more Aryan or Nordic, such as the Scandinavian and Baltic countries, all show a majority Yamanya ancestry, larger than any other group.
In the study mentioned above, Haak, et al only examined the European ancestry, but in another study done by his co-author Lazaridis (among others), the authors also examines the ancestry of South Asia. This is of course very interesting if we want to complete the picture of the Aryan invasion theory.
Below is a table of different tribes of India, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan and that general area. As can be expected, this paper doesn't use the same founding populations as the above, but I'd like to guide your attention to the Steppe_EMBA (Early to Middle Bronze Age) population, colored orange, in the figure below. This is a Steppe population whihc includes Yamnaya admixture, but does not isolate it. Thus it is not likely possible to compare the proportion of ancestry between these two studies, since they use very different models. The results are just as interesting though.
If we look at some of the peoples with low Steppe ancestry, we find for example the Kusunda and Kharia people, while for example the Kalash, Gujarati, Burusho and Pathan people have high Steppe ancestry.
Now, I'm no expert on indigenous tribes of South Asia, so my only possible method of comparing these populations is with a simple Google Image search.
The above populations do not have any obvious European phenotypes and they are obviously not closely related to each other either. This is also what we would expect from their genetics, Kusunda having a major Han (chinese) admixture, while the Kharia have a major part Onge (indigenous Indian). The populations below however, all have a major part Steppe ancestry. Can you spot the similarities?
Now, some of the photos below are obviously "cherry-picked" and should not be considered representative of their average populations. That said, the existence of these phenotypes, and therefore also genotypes, are obviously indicative of some common heritage with Europeans, however small it may be on average.
I realize that this hardly constitutes proof for anyone who has a vested interest to doubt the concept of any Aryan heritage. For those that have an open mind and are interested in their genetic and cultural ancestry, I believe the results of these two studies may prove to be very significant.